The People’s Collection Wales: Sustaining a national, collaborative, bilingual digital programme in its first decade
AbstractCasgliad y Werin Cymru - People’s Collection Wales is a collaborative and federated program developed by three of Wales’ national institutions (National Library of Wales, National Museum Wales, and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales) to tell the story of a nation from the perspective of its people, and to deliver that story bilingually. This paper covers our journey over the past ten years; from the snatched conversations and seeds of ideas at MW2008 in Montreal, where we first formulated the concept of what a People’s Collection could be, through the first public iteration of the platform that we showcased at MW2011 in Philadelphia, to how we have sustained and strengthened the long-running partnership of our three national institutions. Over the past decade we have worked with various contractors, revised our system architecture, migrated platforms, and developed a program of activities that support community groups and individuals throughout Wales in order to contribute to, and benefit from, the People’s Collection Wales. Throughout this paper we will highlight the lessons we have learned, and offer insights we think might be applicable to other digital projects facing similar issues. We will also provide practical examples of how we have negotiated and overcome the challenges common to many in the sector—the expectation that we will deliver more in spite of decreasing budgets, and ensuring we remain relevant, both technologically and politically, in a rapidly evolving sector.
Keywords: national, collaborative, sustainability, bilingual, open, API
Casgliad y Werin Cymru/the People’s Collection Wales (PCW) is a website that sprang from an unlikely beginning. In 2007 and 2008, politicians in Wales were pushing for the establishment of an all-Wales collection of people’s history. Initially, most expected this new collection to be housed in a new museum, developed somewhere in the South Wales valleys. The problem for CyMAL, the Welsh Government’s Museums, Archives and Libraries department, was that most of the interesting material relating to this topic was already in various museums and archives, many of which would be reluctant to hand it over to a new, competing institution. The second obvious problem was that the development of a new museum would be very expensive.
So it was decided to adopt a 21st century approach to developing this new collection of human history. Initially named Casgliad y Bobl/The People’s Collection (later changed to Casgliad y Werin Cymru/the People’s Collection Wales to give a stronger Welsh identity), an innovative new website was to be developed that would collect, interpret, distribute, and discuss Wales’ cultural heritage online.
It was at MW2008 that key members of the project development team first met and discussed the core data model the People’s Collection Wales might adopt. Much of the inspiration for the site can be attributed to David Bearman’s 2008 paper on Geo-Aware Digital Cultural Heritage (Bearman, 2008), in which he describes his approach of “turning the museum inside out and the embedding of the collection in physical space.”
Adding spatio-temporal values to museum content allows museums to do the following:
- share authority and interpretation;
- repatriate “stolen” museum objects virtually rather than physically;
- engage communities in new ways far away from our museum sites;
- re-contextualize objects and collection in time and place;
- allow for the recombination objects from one museum with another to restore temporal and spatial relevance to groups of objects.
Bearman’s principles provided the starting point for the development of the data standard for all content within the People’s Collection Wales. This new website would provide a searchable index of online content about Welsh life, culture and heritage, all of which would be tagged by place, subject, and time. A Web mapping service could provide access and searching of content spatially, and a timeline facility could allow temporal searching and access to chronological information.
The website would be available on multiple platforms, so that content could be accessed not just at a PC with a broadband connection, but also in the real world through “smartphones” and the “mobile Web”–all very cutting edge at the time.
In June 2008, less than three months after MW2008, the People’s Collection Wales project vision statement had been drafted, the then Welsh Assembly Government Heritage Minister Rhodri Glyn Thomas announced the first steps in the development of an online collection of the history of Wales and its people; the first of its kind in the UK.
The creation of an All Wales People’s Collection Wales is a key commitment for the Assembly Government. It will help widen understanding of our rich and diverse heritage and it places Wales at the forefront of technological developments for multilingual access to heritage and culture…..The People’s Collection Wales will give all of us the ability to become digital curators and in doing so enrich everyone’s understanding of Welsh heritage and culture, both now, and for the future. (BBC News, 2008)
From concept to reality
There were many real challenges to the creation of PCW—the use of differing data standards and formats even within individual institutions, let alone those in use across the whole sector.
There was genuine concern, even within the partner institutions, about the online publication of institutional resources; putting content out into a lawless digital landscape where it might be copied, denigrated, or exploited by anyone, and what the implications of this might be for institutions that felt they might increasingly need to raise revenue from the sale and licensing of their cultural riches.
By far the greatest amount of discussion in the early days of the program focussed on the potentially dire consequences of hosting user-generated content and comments. What about bad language! What about pornography! What about malicious uploads! Even if the type of material being uploaded wasn’t offensive, how could we cope with the huge demand on our time that moderating the hundreds of daily uploads? Almost inevitably, these concerns could not be further from the reality of moderation. It is a far greater problem actually ensuring users want to and can easily upload content to the site. Uploads from individual users remains low, with far more coming from local interest groups, clubs, and societies, and interventions to prevent offensive material being uploaded to the site are incredibly rare. The demand on the time for those that moderate content on the site is minimal.
Mitigating these imagined risks was a primary concern throughout these preliminary discussions, and influenced the technical solutions and workflows we eventually decided to implement, and are still in effect today. All content added to the site through a non-stakeholder account can only be published and made visible to other users after it has been through a moderation process. All content is moderated to ensure that it is legal, inoffensive, and has with it all the necessary information on copyright to allow it to be used, and re-used, under the terms of PCW’s Creative Archives license.
The first version of the website was built for us by a digital agency based in Cardiff, Sequence, and launched at the National Eisteddfod in Ebbw Vale in August 2010. We showcased this version at MW2011 in Philadelphia.
Maintaining and improving the service
Following the release of the first iteration of the People’s Collection Wales website in 2010, the partners established a cross-organizational team to manage, support and improve the digital and design products developed for PCW. The team had a mix of skills and experience in Web development, digital content, design, archiving, and user experience. This resulted in the group taking more control over the website to ensure value for money and improving the user experience. This meant rationalizing some of the features established at the outset.
Over the next two years, developments in online technology provided opportunities such as cloud services, matured secure API services, and an increase in standardization of mobile development systems, platforms, and languages e.g. HTML5. At this point, the expectations of users were growing considerably. Increasingly, users were able to share large amounts of content across a number of different platforms easily, in stark contrast to the PCW website that had complex (yet necessary) licensing and policy protocols and a tiny fraction of the budget. However, we found low cost solutions—such as a universal upload spreadsheet—to keep the flow of content and help community projects achieve their goals.
Migrating to phase two
To maintain the vision of being a world-class bilingual online resource, we took a step change in the evolution of the platform to reflect the nature and demands of our audiences. In 2013 we set out to refresh a number of areas of the website, including the following:
- strengthen the API infrastructure to expand its publishing and harvesting process to a wider dataset and audience;
- develop a mobile version of the website to broaden reach;
- improve the upload section of the website to ensure quick and easy sharing of user generated content.
In order that we could achieve these goals, we decided that we needed to change supplier. This gave the technical group an opportunity to establish a product management methodology to ensure that each product met the needs of its users, whilst also achieving program business objectives.
Following a lengthy tendering process, we eventually partnered with Rippleffect, a large digital agency based in Liverpool. This change of supplier also led to a change of project management methodology—we were now committed to using the Agile methodology. Having adopted this new suppliers’ agile development approach, our priority was to address the backlog of development work, and our first challenge was to migrate from a .NET-based system to a LAMP architecture using Drupal 7 CMS with around half the modules being custom built for specific features.
The website improved considerably following this migration. Contributions increased due to the new user interfaces and a more robust API. The partnership regularly received positive feedback on the interface, and there were far fewer issues reported from our users post-migration. The API developed through this process offers direct access to collection systems, meaning that building microsites, connections to other applications, and huge data ingests are possible. We are continuing to experiment with products that can take advantage of this infrastructure.
Taking it in-house
Although the migration to a new platform with a new supplier resulted in many improvements, we continued to experience problems. Over time we developed a problematic backlog of work for new features; there were also periods where we lacked the necessary agency resource for maintenance or new developments, which could be frustrating for our staff. In addition, we experienced a high turnover of staff in the agency due to the nature of the commercial sector; this led to frustration over expertise being lost and having to repeatedly bring new people up to speed over the timeline of development and changes that had preceded their appointments.
Finally, we faced something of a crisis when our supplier was amalgamated into a much larger company, which turned their focus away from the culture sector. Although this came as a shock to us, it also gave us the opportunity to reduce our dependency on external agencies, make our digital delivery more sustainable and improve our in-house capacity.
The PCW website has recently been migrated over to a “managed service,” i.e. a Platform as a Service (PaaS) that is optimized to our needs. This cloud-based solution, Acquia Cloud Professional, has given us the resilience and scalability we require, as well as tools for monitoring, backups, and security.
There have been a number of challenges in shifting the ownership of the system—mainly in terms of skills and staffing. Also, there are a few technical issues, for example incompatibility on modules and services on the new hosting environment. However, these are short-term challenges; PCW now has increased ownership over its digital assets and a more sustainable website.
Sustaining support from Government
Beyond the everyday challenges of maintaining a website for nearly a decade so that it continues to function properly and is still of relevance to its users and stakeholders, for PCW there is a further and even more critical challenge: maintaining our political support.
As the PCW program is wholly funded by the Welsh Government, it is essential that we are able to demonstrate that we are addressing Government priorities and delivering meaningful results. A crucial factor in our success to-date has been ensuring we are up to speed with Welsh Government research into the culture sector, and actively engaging with decision makers to try and ensure they understand the value of our program.
The hard work of our Programme Manager ensured we were featured in the “Welsh Programme for Government 2011-16,” which made much of the Welsh Government’s commitment to digital access, in particular “the potential for digital media to promote culture through Casgliad y Werin Cymru/People’s Collection Wales and other online initiatives” (Welsh Government, 2011).
Through careful program management and activity planning each year, we ensure our delivery plans align with key policy initiatives, including the Welsh Government’s Fusion Programme (Welsh Government, 2015) and the Wellbeing of Future Generations Act (Welsh Government, 2015).
We have ensured that we are “agile” when it comes to planning program activities. We start planning for the next year early, and we are realistic about the number and nature of activities that we are able to pursue. We try to add value in areas that might normally be viewed as falling outside of our sector, but where our involvement is of strategic importance, e.g. wellbeing, digital inclusion, community cohesion, and accredited qualifications. We also go through a process of mapping our activities against Government policy and priorities.
Mapping broad-brush policies to delivery
|Welsh Government Policy||PCW Delivery|
|HC6 – Supporting people to live in the Community||Network of Digital Heritage Stations
Providing Accredited Training
Developing Digital Culture and Heritage “Champions”
Training for partners within pioneer areas – “Train the Trainer”
Virtual Learning platform and MOOC
|LC4 – Lifelong Learning in Communities|
|LC5 – Improving Adult Life Skills|
|PC1 – Helping People to develop employment skills and find work|
|PC2 – Reducing Youth Unemployment and disengagement|
|PC3 – Promoting Digital Inclusion|
|Promoting joined up working between cultural organisations, Communities First clusters and other sectors/agencies, and local communities|
Demonstrating our value through measuring impact
Simon Tanner’s Balanced Value Impact Model (Tanner, 2012) has been crucial in our efforts to demonstrate the value of the PCW program. This streamlined model for impact assessment is based on the premise of the four core values of online resources. These values are the following:
- Social Value: e.g. knowledge and skills, community cohesion, wellbeing, and enjoyment;
- Innovation Value: e.g. new technologies, new ways of working, or new ways of applying existing technology and ways of working;
- Process Value: e.g. evidence of resource savings achieved through increasing the efficiency of working practice;
- Economic Value: e.g. the added value to the economy of skills development and increased visitor spending.
During activity planning, we assess the value impact of every proposed activity against these four categories. We also use the Tanner audience groups to help us focus our targeted activities.
|Tanner Audience Group||Tanner Definition (Summary)||PCW Definition or measure (if different or appropriate)||PCW “real-life” examples||Data sources of relevance to Marketing|
(REACHED and/or ENGAGED)
|Regular users||A “regular user of the website – e.g. 3 times quarterly over X number of quarters. ‘User’ in this context defined as ‘visitor’ rather than a ‘contributor’.”||Website users; Digital Heritage Station (DHS) in the Communities First area users; online communities, community groups; Wales residents; Welsh diaspora; tourists; teachers; students; social media users||Google Analytics to track regular visitors|
|One Stop Consumers (REACHED)||Only use resource once or twice||An individual or entity who has had only one point of interaction with PCW in total. Interaction likely to have fulfilled an immediate, finite or time-based. Could also be users who were effectively reached but not engaged further.||Could be anyone who interacts with the programme only one e.g. a tourist that visits the website for specific information; a student that uses the resource for project research; social media users.||May not be possible (or desirable) to track every instance. Emphasis should be on how to engage those types of audience groups more than once and facilitate a repeat interaction rather than “one stop” journeys.|
|Producers and consumers (ACTIVATED)||Content contributors||A user or group that contributes stories, images, trails, objects etc. on the website, at a DHS or by other means. Could also be a user that has repurposed existing content in a new way.||Website users; DHS users; community groups; partners; artists; creative industries and businesses; students; social media users.||Google Analytics goals to track user conversions to specific web actions. Focus may be to encourage users who have been reached and engaged to make contributions. This can be done through newsletters, social media, website, marketing materials in DHS or community hubs.|
People’s Collection Wales program works incredibly hard to deliver a range of activities and services that help in the Welsh Government’s efforts to tackle poverty and enhance skills and well-being. Being proactive rather than reactive is only likely to become to become more essential if we are to continue to deliver a successful program.
An additional challenge has been maintaining the federated partnership established in 2008. Over the past decade, there have been changes of leadership at the top of each of the federated partners, and within Welsh Government. Maintaining the support of new chief executives, senior civil servants, and staff within these organizations more widely has only been possible by being able to demonstrate the impact of the work PCW is doing. By combining the expertise of staff seconded to this program from each of the three partners, we are demonstrably able to achieve more than any one of the partner organizations could achieve independently.
Training and facilities
Since 2014, PCW has been establishing Digital Heritage Stations (DHS) throughout Wales to provide communities with free access to IT and digitization equipment. In partnership with local community and history groups, we offer support and training on how to use the equipment and upload items to the website. Each DHS provides a hub for digital heritage activities, access to essential IT equipment, facilities (e.g. Wi-Fi), and support for users provided by the host venue and/or other community partners.
We want to help our users to follow best practice when digitizing their material and offer a range of training courses:
- basic training covers topics such as copyright, metadata (essential for making items easy to search and find), a practical element on calibrating scanners and creating folders for different file types;
- advanced training is a follow up to the basic training, which is an accredited NVQ Level 2 Unit and carries 3 credits as part of the Agored Cymru Learning Framework;
- further accredited units are in development, including Oral History and Digital Curation;
- we are also piloting use of online learning platforms (Curatr 3.0) to develop courses that can be completed remotely.
Reaching a wider audience
Linked data and our partnership with the BBC
In 2015, the People’s Collection Wales began a collaboration with the BBC on their Research and Education Space (RES) project (http://bbcarchdev.github.io/res/). The goal of this collaboration was to make the People’s Collection Wales data available to teachers, students, and academics through the RES platform.
The data that the People’s Collection would need to provide BBC RES project would need to be in the RDF Linked data format, working with the BBC RES team, an ontology was created based on the data the People’s Collection provides (https://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/ontology).
Delivering content to third-party websites
The People’s Collection Wales websites Application programming interface (API) has allowed us and our partners to create software applications to reuse and repurpose the content on the website.
The embeddable widget is a service, similar to Twitter embedded timelines or Google Maps, that allows users to insert a small snippet of HTML on their site, which then displays an interactive widget that displays content from the People’s Collection (People’s Collection Wales, 2018). The widget is fully customizable, allowing users to show content from certain users, by tag or by facet; the widget also has the ability to be themed, which allows it to fit within the branding of the website.
The widget has recently been used as an interactive exhibition piece at the National Library of Wales “Arthur and Welsh Mythology” exhibition (https://www.llgc.org.uk/en/visit/things-to-do/exhibitions/previous-exhibitions/arthur-and-welsh-mythology).
Figure 6: PCW widget in use on touchscreens at the Arthur and Welsh Mythology exhibition at the National Library of Wales. In 2016 the Hwb, a platform for improving the use of digital technology for teaching and learning in schools, integrated the PCW API into their platform. This has made People’s Collection content available to every teacher and child in Wales
Exploring how this data is being used
The People’s Collection Wales website has over 100,000 items, comprising of four content types: items, collections, stories, and trails; an item can contain multiple objects (images, audio, video, PDF and 3D objects).
- 74,510 tags
- 208 hours of audio
- 49 hours of video
- 2,180 miles of trails
- 19 hours of stories to read (Medium.com, 2017)
Relationship between users and collections
Collections are created from items, stories, and trails. Users upload items onto the website and have the option to create a collection from their content or to create a collection on a topic or theme using a combination of their own content and that of other users.
By creating a collection with other user’s content, a relationship between users is made. Users can create one or many collections, users content can appear in one or more collections, and collections can have one or more items that come from one or more users. This relationship can be visualized as a graph (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graph_theory).
The graph above shows the relationship between all the collections and the users whose content appears in those collections.
The map above shows all the roads travelled by the community engagement team; the directions were generated using the Google Maps directions API (https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/directions/), with the National Library of Wales as the starting point and the training event as the destination.
People’s Collection Wales microsites
PCW developed their microsite approach in response to the issue of grant-funded heritage projects establishing short-term solutions to publishing digital outputs online. The proliferation of project websites of variable quality, presenting digital outputs to small audiences, with the inevitable problem of the valuable digital resources generated by these projects being lost forever when funding runs out and support staff move on, was a situation that needed to be challenged.
We knew there should be an alternative. Our idea was to use our experienced technical and design staff to create attractive, easily managed websites, built on proven technologies, that can reach the maximum audience at minimum cost, all while ensuring digital outputs are preserved and available for the future, even when a project has been completed and all those connected with it have moved on.
A major benefit of the PCW microsite is the way it deals with legacy issues; by storing and publishing through the PCW API, the digital media and resources generated through your project can be retained and published on the PCW website, even if the microsite itself has been shut down, ensuring the digital outputs of your project continue to be available and used.
Galleries can be customized to show different areas, categories, and relevant interests, meaning that just one account on PCW can be used to create many different searchable galleries on external websites.
Microsites and their galleries can incorporate Google Analytics, allowing the monitoring of traffic on the website.
Planning for the next ten years—new technologies
Current developments include the integration of a International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) viewer on the website (http://iiif.io/), with IIIF items being displayed through the Universal viewer (https://universalviewer.io/). The viewer will allow high resolution images to be zoomable through IIIF and the viewer; these images do not live on the People’s Collection website, but are pulled from the content owners’ servers; a collection of images can be created from multiple source into a manifest file (iiif.io, 2018) which can be viewed on the People’s Collection Wales website.
Looking to future developments and how artificial intelligence along with machine learning can help improve the content on our website, we have been looking at how services such as Google Cloud Vision API (https://cloud.google.com/vision/docs/drag-and-drop) can help classify objects in an image; classifying items in these images will allow us to index the data and provide our users with better and more accurate search results.
Machine learning can also help us improve legacy data; we are currently looking at how machine learning classifiers, such as Naive Bayes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naive_Bayes_classifier), can help us to classify items to our fixed facet vocabulary which will help users with faceted searching.
When we began the development of the People’s Collection Wales, it was clear that we would need to adopt a form of licensing that would allow users the freedom to re-purpose, and give contributors the reassurance that they still maintained some control over their material. At the time we opted to use the BBC/BFI supported Creative Archives License (http://www.bbc.co.uk/creativearchive/licence/index.shtml).
This license was designed to allow creative use of archival material by the public. While artists and teachers were encouraged to use the content to create works of their own, the terms of the license were restrictive compared to other copyleft licenses. Use of Creative Archive content for commercial purposes was forbidden; any derivative works were to be released under the same license; and content was only to be used within the UK.
We are now planning to offer our users a range of Creative Commons licenses (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/licensing-types-examples/) to choose from, as well as the UK Open Government license to facilitate the sharing of data from Government Agencies (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/), to ensure that we can work with more data from wider sources, and make that data more widely available for re-use.
An area where we know we need to improve is the accessibility of our website and its content. A great deal of work and resources will be needed to improve our website to meet WAI-ARIA guidelines (https://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/aria). In the short- to medium-term we are planning to commit time and resources to review how well our website meets these guidelines, and how we can help make user-generated content more accessible.
Adding closed captions to our 208 hours of audio and 49 hours of video is something that has been discussed, but is a challenge of resources and technology. We have yet to find the best long-term scalable solution for adding closed captions to our audio material, and we currently have more questions than answers: What would be the cost of having the audio transcribed professionally? Could software automate the process? What if the quality isn’t acceptable? Can currently available software deal with the Welsh language to an acceptable level? Could we crowdsource transcriptions in a similar way to the New York Public Library and their Community Oral History Project (http://transcribe.oralhistory.nypl.org)?
The past ten years have taught us a few things that, in hindsight, it would have been good to know from the start! The following are five lessons learned from this project that might be applicable to other digital projects.
- Address the political narrative—if the next big issue for politicians (or major funders) is cultural tourism, education, health, or whatever else, think how you can make it clear that you are addressing this issue through your delivery plan and ensure there is scope to adapt from year to year.
- Think holistically—if user engagement is being measured through quantitative targets, ensure you have a support network that helps users to complete whatever the task is, e.g. community training events, provision of equipment, etc. Don’t just rely on a good UX and hope for the best.
- Simplify to amplify—in the early days we listened to too many stakeholders with special interests, leading us to develop costly specialist functionality. Concentrate on your core offer and make this really good, before thinking about diversification.
- Prioritise quality—if at all possible, don’t sacrifice the quality of your technical build because of pressure to spend the capital funding within the first (and subsequent) financial year of the program’s development.
- Success has many parents, but failures are always orphans—at the beginning of the program, some partners took on more responsibility and associated risk than others. It was difficult to instill a culture of iterative development and a lessons learnt approach to some work streams, for example Learning. This could have been mitigated by developing a stronger responsibility matrix that identified project owners more clearly, and promotion of a culture that celebrates efforts made toward achieving success rather than hiding from potential failure.
We are proud of the achievements of PCW over the last decade. We have developed a coherent and sector-leading program, as well as a supportive professional network between those involved in the program, despite our geographical separation and often competing institutional priorities.
While we can acknowledge our successes, we are also aware that the website and program are certainly not perfect, and there is still plenty that we need to address, fix, or improve.
From the start we have struggled to deliver a good mobile experience—developing a fully responsive site is a priority. We are also interested in encouraging use of our API by third-party developers that might make use of our content within their apps.
We are aware of the need to streamline workflows, where we can, to increase user registration and content upload through the website.
We need to engage more with the archive and small museum sector, seemingly an open goal when you look at their current online presence, but still a sector that we are struggling to engage with.
Fundamentally, though, we are about to embark on the second decade of the People’s Collection Wales in a real position of strength. The federated partnership continues to be a strong tripartite relationship between three national institutions; we continue to enjoy the support of the Welsh Government’s Museums Archives and Libraries department; and we are in a better place technologically than we have ever been before—able to set our own priorities, control our own timetables, and pursue exciting new developments.
Undoubtedly, new and unexpected challenges will come our way, but the strong team that has worked together on this program for the last ten years will be the key to sustaining it for the next ten years.
BBC News, Wales. (2008). “People’s history will go online.” Last updated Wednesday, June 25, 2008. Consulted January 14, 2018. Available http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/7472720.stm
Bearman, D. (2008). “Geo-Aware Digital Cultural Heritage.” Last updated September 9, 2011. Consulted January 14, 2018. Available http://www.archimuse.com/papers/taiwan0803/Taiwan.NDAP08.Bearman.pdf
iiif.io. (2018). “IIIF manifest response.” Last updated January 25, 2018. Consulted February 1, 2018. Available http://iiif.io/api/presentation/2.0/#manifest
Medium.com. (2017). “Read Time.” Last updated March 27, 2017. Consulted January 10, 2018. Available https://help.medium.com/hc/en-us/articles/214991667-Read-time
People’s Collection Wales. (2018). “Embeddable Widget HTML.” Last updated January 2, 2018. Consulted January 14, 2018. Available https://gist.github.com/404mike/68f5f4174956c8364d75c6694e5c569a
Tanner, S. (2012). “Measuring the Impact of Digital Resources: the Balanced Value Impact Model.” Last updated September 15, 2016. Consulted January 14, 2018. Available https://www.kdl.kcl.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/pubs/BalancedValueImpactModel_SimonTanner_October2012.pdf
Welsh Governmen. (2011). “Programme for Government.” Last updated October 31, 2016. Consulted January 14, 2018. Available http://gov.wales/docs/strategies/110929fullen.pdf
Welsh Government. (2015). “Fusion: Creating Opportunities Through Culture.” Last updated October 18, 2017. Consulted January 14, 2018. Available http://gov.wales/topics/culture-tourism-sport/tackling-poverty-through-culture/?lang=en
Welsh Government. (2015). “Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015.” Last updated August 8, 2016. Consulted January 14, 2018. Available http://gov.wales/topics/people-and-communities/people/future-generations-act/?lang=en
Pert, Tom, Jones, Michael and James, Dafydd. "The People’s Collection Wales: Sustaining a national, collaborative, bilingual digital programme in its first decade." MW18: MW 2018. Published January 15, 2018. Consulted .