Kate Hennessy, Simon Fraser University, School of Interactive Arts and Technology, Canada, Dave Schaepe, Stó:lō Research and Resource Management Centre, Canada, Natasha Lyons, Ursus Heritage Consulting, Canada, Aynur Kadir, Simon Fraser University, Canada, Reese Muntean, Simon Fraser University, Canada, Clarence Pennier, Sqewlets, CANADA, Michael Blake, Department of Anthropology, CANADA
Sq’éwlets: A Stó:lo-Coast Salish Community in the Fraser River Valley (http://digitalsqewlets.ca/) is an online exhibit produced by the Sq’éwlets First Nation and the Stó:lo Research and Resource Management Centre. Funded by the Virtual Museum of Canada, the project was collaboratively produced between 2013 and 2017 by intergenerational community members, archaeologists, media producers, exhibition designers, and museum anthropologists. Digital Sq’éwlets is at once a virtual exhibit, a documentary film project, a Halq’eméylem language tool, a photo-essay, a teaching resource, and a series of physical exhibitions inspired by the digital exhibit.
In this paper, we dig into the long-term collaborative relationships that were formed in the process of conducting community-based archaeological work at Qithyil, which included the development of cultural protocols for excavating and re-burying ancestral human remains. We then directly connect these relationships to developments in new digital collections networks, such as the Reciprocal Research Network, which was co-developed by four British Columbia First Nations. We show in this paper how the very principles and protocols for conducting archaeology at Qithyil informed and guided the new media based production of the Sq’éwlets online exhibit and related physical exhibitions. We argue that, in a recursive mode, our collaborative media production, influenced by innovative long-term community-based archaeological practice at Qithyil, signals the potential of digital heritage projects to intervene in conventional museum and curatorial practices.
Anderson J and Christen K (2013) Chuck a copyright on it: Dilemmas of digital return and the possibilities for traditional knowledge licenses and labels. Museum Anthropology Review 7(1–2): 105–126.
Bell J, Christen K and Turin M (2013) After the return: Digital repatriation and the circulation of indigenous knowledge workshop report. Museum Worlds: Advances in Research 1: 195–203.
Blake M (2004) Fraser valley trade and prestige as seen from Scowlitz. In: Prentiss W and Kuijt I (eds) Complex Hunter-Gatherers. Evolution and Organization of Prehistoric Communities on the Plateau of Northwestern North America. Salt Lake: University of Utah Press, pp. 103–112.
Balsamo, A (2011) Designing Culture: the Technological Imagination at Work. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Boast R (2011) Neocolonial collaboration: Museum as contact zone revisited. Museum Anthropology 34(1): 56–70.
Boast R and Enote J (2013) Virtual repatriation: It is neither virtual nor repatriation. In: Biehl F and Prescott C (eds) Heritage in the Context of Globalization: Europe and the Americas. New York: Springer, pp. 103–113.
Christen K (2009) Access and accountability: The ecology of information sharing in the digital age. Anthropology News (April 2009): 4–5.
Christen K (2011) Opening archives: Respectful repatriation. The American Archivist 74(1): 185–210.
Christen K (2015) Tribal archives, traditional knowledge and local contexts: Why the ‘s’ matters. Journal of Western Archives 6(1): 1–19.
Ernst, W (2013) Digital Memory and the Archive. J. Parikka, Ed. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.
Fortin, C., Hennessy, K., Bizzocchi, J. (2017)
Navigating the Museum: Reclaiming Living History with a Digital Toolbox. Leonardo (Posted Online August 07, 2017
Foucault, M (1969) The Archaeology of Knowledge. London and New York: Routledge.
Glass A and Hennessy K (forthcoming) Museums collections, indigenous knowledge, and emergent digital networks. In: Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 1. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution.
Hennessy, K., Lyons, N., Loring, S., Arnold, C., Joe, M., Elias, A., Pokiak, J. (2013)
The Inuvialuit Living History Project: Digital Return as the Forging of Relationships Between Institutions, People, and Data. Museum Anthropology Review 7(1-2) Spring-Fall 2013: 44-73. [link]
Hennessy, K., Wallace, R., Jakobsen, N., Arnold, C. (2012)
Virtual Repatriation and the Application Programming Interface: From the Smithsonian Institution’s MacFarlane Collection to Inuvialuit Living History. Museums and the Web 2012: Proceedings, San Diego: Archives & Museum Informatics
Kelty, C (2008) Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Lyons N (2011) Creating space for negotiating the nature and outcomes of collaborative research projects with Aboriginal communities. Inuit Studies 35(1–2): 83–105.
Lyons N (2013) Where the wind blows us: Practicing critical community archaeology in the Canadian North. In: The Archaeology of Colonialism in Native North America Series. Tucson: University of Arizona Press
Lyons, N., Schaepe, D., Hennessy, K., Blake, M., Pennier, C., Welch, J.R., McIntosh, K., Phillips, A., Charlie, B., Hall, C., Hall, L., Kadir, A., Point, A., Pennier, V., Phillips, R., Muntean, R., Williams, J. Jr., Williams, J. Sr., Chapman, J., Pennier, C. (2016)
Sharing Deep History as Digital Knowledge: An Ontology of the Sq’éwlets Website Project. Journal of Social Archaeology 16 (3): 359-84.. [pdf]
McHalsie A (Sonny) (2007) We have to take care of everything that belongs to us. In: Miller BG (ed.) Be of Good Mind: Essays on the Coast Salish. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, pp. 82–130.
Miller Bruce (ed) (2007) Be of Good Mind: Essays on the Coast Salish. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Morrison S (1997) Household archaeology at the Scowlitz Site, Fraser Valley, BC. Unpublished MA Thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Muntean, R., Hennessy, K., Antle, A., Matkin, B., Rowley, S., Wilson, J. (2017)
Designing Tangible Interactions to Communicate Cultural Continuity: ʔeləw̓k̓ʷ — Belongings, a Tangible Table in c̓əsnaʔəm, the city before the city’ at the Museum of Anthropology. Proceedings of Museums and the Web, 2017, Cleveland: Archives and Museums Informatics. [link]
Muntean, R., Antle, A., Matkin, B., Hennessy, K., Rowley, S., Wilson, J. (2017)
Designing Cultural Values into Interaction. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI), ACM Press, 10 pgs.
Schaepe, D., Pennier, C., Hennessy, K., and Lyons, N. (in press)
Digital Sq’éwlets: A story of belongings, worldview and teachings. University of Melbourne Collections (Special Issue: Future of the Object Symposium). Pages forthcoming.
Parikka, J (2013) Archival Media Theory: A Introduction to Wolfgang Ernst’s Media Archaeology. In Digital Memory and the Archive, Wolfgang Ernst, with Ed. J. Parikka. Pp. 1-22. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.
Rowley S (2013) The reciprocal research network: The development process. Museum Anthropology Review 7 (1–2) Spring-Fall 2013: 22–43.